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The Battle of Kings Mountain and the Overmountain Men

Colonel Isaac Shelby

Colonel Isaac Shelby, Patriot militia leader

The Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780, was a decisive Patriot victory and a turning point of the war in the South during the American Revolution. A distinguishing characteristic of this battle is that it was fought entirely by irregular, Loyalist and Patriot militia forces; the only regular soldier involved was the British commander Major Patrick Ferguson. Many of the Patriot forces were Overmountain men from the hills and valleys of northwest North Carolina (today’s Tennessee) and the Holston River Valley in southwest Virginia.

After a siege of Charleston ended in May 1780 in one of the worst American defeats of the war, the British Army under General Lord Charles Cornwallis moved inland expecting to rally Loyalists in the Carolinas. Patriots and Loyalists engaged in savage partisan warfare with both sides reporting burning, looting, torture and murder. In mid-August the Americans under Horatio Gates suffered another disastrous defeat by Cornwallis at Camden, South Carolina. As Cornwallis began a northward invasion, Ferguson commanded a 1,000-man detachment protecting the left flank. Ferguson had great success in attracting upcountry South Carolinians to join his Loyalist militia but was harassed by North Carolina militia under Colonels Isaac Shelby and Charles McDowell using hit-and-run tactics. When Ferguson pursued these backwoods Patriot militia northward, they retreated across the Blue Ridge to the safety of Shelby’s homeland. Showing utter disdain for these “barbarians” and “dregs of mankind,” Ferguson threatened to “march this army over the mountains, hang your leaders, and lay waste your country with fire and sword.” Not waiting for Ferguson’s threat to materialize, Shelby and Colonel John Sevier of Watauga settlement sent express riders to muster militia from the Overmountain region and elsewhere, planning to recross the Blue Ridge and defeat Ferguson east of the mountains.

Colonel John Sevier

Colonel John Sevier of Watauga, Patriot militia leader

Having ridden two days from Wolf’s Creek (today’s Abington, Virginia) Colonel William Campbell and 400 horsemen arrived at Sycamore Shoals (today’s Elizabethton, Tennessee) and joined nearly 500 men under Shelby and Sevier plus 160 more from Burke County, North Carolina, under McDowell. On September 27 this throng, most on horseback, marched south in pursuit of Ferguson. East of the mountains at Quaker Meadows (today’s Morgantown, North Carolina) they were joined by 350 more men under Colonel Benjamin Cleveland and Major Joseph Winston who had marched four days up the Yadkin River Valley from Elk Creek (today’s Elkin, North Carolina). The enlarged Patriot force continued their pursuit to the south, but after being warned of the oncoming throng by a deserter, Ferguson began to retreat easterly toward Cornwallis’ main army in Charlotte.

Appointing Campbell overall commander, the Patriot militia rode hard to the Cowpens (South Carolina) on October 6 where 400 militia from South Carolina and a small group from Georgia joined. Learning from scouts that Ferguson was nearing Charlotte, the Patriots chose their 900 best marksmen, mounted them on their best horses and rode all night to engage Ferguson’s force before it could reach safety. Learning from locals that Ferguson’s force was encamped atop Kings Mountain, the Patriots arrived at the base of the mountain in the afternoon of October 7.

Attacking from all sides with their long rifles, the Patriots fired on Loyalists massed on the plateau from cover in surrounding woods but were repulsed by a Loyalist bayonet charge. Regrouping, the Patriots resumed the assault and claimed increasing Loyalist casualties with deadly rifle fire. On a third assault the Patriots took the crest and encircled the Loyalists; Ferguson was shot dead in the saddle while frantically rallying his men. Loyalist resistance quickly collapsed, but Patriot militia, recalling British brutality in previous engagements, continued to fire into Loyalist ranks for several minutes before Patriot officers could assert control. Through the afternoon and evening, the wounded were tended and the dead were buried in shallow graves on the mountain.

Concerned that a British relief force might arrive soon, the Patriots departed with their prisoners early on October 8. Along the march, retribution was demanded from some of the captured Loyalists. On October 14 a quick trial was held, and 30 Loyalists were condemned to death for atrocities committed on previous occasions. Nine Loyalists were hanged before the slaughter could be stopped by the colonels. Over the next few days the Patriot force disbanded, and Overmountain men once again crossed the Blue Ridge headed home.

The victory at Kings Mountain demoralized the British and buoyed the Americans. No longer could the British depend on Loyalists in the Carolina Piedmont to flock to the King’s standard; the Patriot spirit was reinvigorated in the Carolinas, and British southern strategy had been dealt a serious blow. More fighting lay ahead, but Kings Mountain was a turning point; in just over a year Cornwallis would surrender his army to Washington at Yorktown.

By Dennis Dicus

14 thoughts on “The Battle of Kings Mountain and the Overmountain Men

  1. Marjorie Doughtie Koska says:

    My 3rd great grandfather was James Potter Collins and his father, Daniel Collins both fought at King’s Mountain. James P. Collins’ name is on the D.A.R. monument honoring “Revolutionary Soldiers who died in Texas” in the State Cemetery in Austin Texas.
    Great Grandfather James P. Collins wrote “Autobiography of A Revolutionary Soldier” so I have an wonderful first person history of this battle and the Battle of Cowpens.
    I hope to visit these sites along with my son sometimes in the future.

  2. Donald G Callaway Jr says:

    My grandfathers Thomas Callaway Sr and Thomas Callaway Jr were part of the overmountain men and Kings Mountain battle Thomas Sr was as Captain in the Continental Army also was a friend of Daniel Boone and lived in Boonesborough settled and buried in West Jefferson NC tall slender river rock as his grave marker given to him by Daniel Boone

  3. Carole Hammond says:

    My forefather was William Edmiston who fought and also lost two brothers in Kings Mountain. He was given the loyalist commander’s sword after the battle which he donated to the Tennessee Historical Society.

  4. Cheryl Schmidt says:

    My 8th great grandfather was John Sevior. Thank you for this information.

  5. Cynthia Barrie says:

    I learned something new! My second cousin 6x removed was Lt. Rees Bowen who died during the Battle of Kings Mountain. Found this on Ancestry.com.

  6. Sandy Briggs says:

    In doing some work on our family tree I was given the names of forefathers who fought. But I can’t seem to locate them on any of the lists of enlisted men. The Names are William Logan and 4 sons. There is Joseph Logan (Baptist Min) is 1 of the 4 Logan brothers. James (?)
    Any help on this would be greatly appreciated.

  7. Deborah Glover-Uetz says:

    My 7th great grandfather was Bryan Gregory. He, his broker William and father Thomas fought at King Mountain. Only Bryan was able to prove he was there. Thank you for the story of that battle.

  8. Robert Young says:

    I have tried in vain to determine where my ancestor Lt. William Blackburn who was killed during the battle is buried. A thoughts on that??

  9. Dr. Linda Lindsey says:

    The 0vermountain Men came from southwest Virginia, what is now eastern Tennessee, what is now northwest, north-central, and piedmont North Caolina, South Carolina, and Georgia and not just from southwest Virginia and current-day eastern Tennessee as this article says.

  10. John Andrew Edmondson says:

    May want to revisit your research on Col William Christian as the overall commander at King’s Mountain. I believe you will find that Col William Campbell was in command, with Maj William Edmiston his second in command leading the 400 Virginia’s from Washington County, Va. The official roster records for the Virginia’s does not include Christian’s name.

    1. bobjeffrey says:

      You are correct. Our blogger wanted to express thanks for pointing out the error. We have corrected.

  11. John Baker says:

    Maybe I’m mistaken but I thought William Campbell played a major role in this battle but is not mentioned once in this article. What’s up with that ?

    1. bobjeffrey says:

      You are correct! Thanks for pointing out the error. We have corrected.

      1. William Berry says:

        Campbell ordered my forefathers boys James Berry,William Berry, Thomas Berry to look after prisoners

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